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How to grow strawberries?

Gardening

Author bazram Page Views 219 38 min read

How to grow strawberries?

Planting, leafing and harvesting strawberries

Strawberry

Fragaria strawberries and the Resea strawberries today used by Chilensis and Virginia (Virginia) and hybrids between the two, the Ananasae.
Generally, herbaceous plants are scioned or stalled. The leaves consist of three leafy scratches and a circus in dark green, some of which are transparent. The flower pot contains 5 white petals, attached to a small child at the bottom, and the pot contains 5 green paws, which are welded down to the bottom. The number of seals in some cultivars may be more than 5. Flags are 20 or more or fewer. It is almost large in number and is spiral on unclean, and in total and together with the hidden form it forms the bishop. The pistils consist of nestlings separate from each other, each with an ovary with a straight and short shape. There is an ovum in each ovary, and in fact seed is produced in the number of hazel nuggets. Flowers after inoculation of petals fall and throbbing gradually grows and flesh develops. The fruit is juicy over time and is converted from acid to sugar. If fertilization is incomplete, the number of hazelnuts is limited and presumably the symmetry of the fruit is not maintained.

Introduction

The strawberry is a perennial herb, belonging to the Rocks and Native species of European forests, the wild species of which has small flowers and leaves, and has been introduced since the fourteenth century due to its medicinal properties. Available varieties of crosses between different species have been obtained. In case of proper planting, proper care and selection of suitable cultivars can be harvested up to 20 tons per hectare. Transplant should be provided from trustworthy establishments that are not infected with plant diseases, especially viral diseases.

Position and weather

Due to the early flowering of strawberry flowers in the spring, shrubs need to be planted somewhere that does not hurt them in the late afternoon.

The ground used for planting should be to the south, because it is heated sooner.

This plant needs plenty of water, especially during the arrival of fruits, otherwise fruits will remain small.

Strawberry cultivars

Strawberry cultivars include two groups:
1. Spring varieties - the plants that produce fruits per year. The most important varieties of the spring are Gorella, Alice, Thiogo, Red Ganeltot, Asta, Katz Kiel, Frasna.
2. The fourfold cultivars, which produce more than one fruit a year, are divided. The fourfold cultivars are very strong and creeping, and produce fruit from late May to late summer and sometimes early autumn. The fruits are tiny and more numerous per plant. Four-stroke cultivars such as Strava and Homi Gentoo.
Environmental conditions
Due to the early flowering of strawberry flowers in the spring, shrubs should be planted somewhere that does not hurt them in the late spring.
The ground used for planting should be to the south, because it is heated sooner. Strawberry is a plant that is almost consistent in various soils. Nonetheless, soft soils with clay sandwiches prefer high-quality food and good drainage. This plant needs plenty of water, especially in the course of fruit arrival, otherwise fruits will remain small.
The best PH for strawberries is 6 to 7. The proper Ec is about 1 dS / cm. If the amount of lime in the soil is higher than the limit, chlorosis or yellowish leaves will appear. In terms of weather, it will be suitable for damp conditions and fairly warm conditions. In warm and humid conditions, sufficient water should be available to the plant and heat resistant varieties should be selected. At an altitude of 400 to 800 meters above sea level, it can grow well. It is semi-resistant to cold and requires a temperature of around 200 to 400 hours of temperature to be less than 7 degrees Celsius and in winter, if it is covered, it will tolerate a temperature of -18 degrees Celsius
It can tolerate up to 5 ° C without straw and chaff coating. Surface roots, usually distributed to a depth of 15 to 20 cm, make the plant susceptible to dehydration. In order to produce spring produce, we need to use cultivars that require shorter and lower temperatures to make flowering and produce them well.
In the four-seventh cultivars, short or long days, as well as high temperature and low temperatures are unavailable, and this group of strawberries usually flush in different conditions.

strawberry transplant

Strawberry planting time

Strawberries can be moved from late fall to midnight until early spring, before they can wake up, and plant in another place. Therefore, it is possible to plant the autumn and spring.
If the planting is autumn, the product will be obtained next summer, and if the plant is planted in the spring before waking up from the winter, the flowers that are supposed to be planted a few weeks after planting on the plant should be arranged so that the plant To be
These bushes are in the spring of next year and can be harvested in the summer. Flower buds are created in the fall season, but due to winter cold, the flowers do not appear until the spring.

Growth and Growing Strawberries:
Sexually transmitted and non-sexual exacerbations take place.
A) Sexual Growth: Strawberry is grown by seed, specially for cultivars that do not naturally produce stems, or cultivars with little flowing stems. Soil breeding is also used to produce new cultivars.
B) Non-sexual enhancement: In non-sexual expansion, which is called splitting the plant, the plants that are well grown and strong, after being removed from the ground, are divided into several smaller plants, each having a certain root, then they are divided into Place the original place. In this method, healthy nursing mothers should be used. The propagation method through scattering stems is that after rooting, the shoots are separated from the mother bushes in the shade in the summer and then transferred to the main plot in the autumn.

Proper plant specifications for planting:
The plant selected for planting should be free from any disease and property of healthy roots and (the color of the roots is clear).
The root of strawberries is subtle and superficial and it works more in depths of 20 to 30 cm.

Land acquisition operations:
Early autumn or spring, plowed the ground and disposed of, then mixed animal and chemical fertilizers and 10 tons per hectare of rotten animal fertilizer with soil and emphasized on soil testing in the amount of 100-80kN in three stages, 150- 100 kilos of pure potash and 80-60 kilograms of phosphorus per hectare are then used to create wells with a width of 40 cm and stacks of 80 cm width.
In the first year before planting, phosphorous and potassium fertilizers and half the amount of urea fertilizer before the disk is fed to the woman, and the rest of the urea fertilizer is added to the soil before and after flowering, and then irrigated.

How to plant strawberries:

When planting the soil should be wet and immediately after planting, irrigate the farm, and planting the bushes in the dry soil will destroy some of them. When planting, all the old leaves should cut off the strawberry bushes and separate the roots, and then plant them. If the plant is planted with a high depth of depth, the plant will suffer due to excessive dryness.
Usually plants are spaced 40 cm apart from each other on the ridges, and approximately the plant density per hectare, according to the above method, is about
31,250 bushes are fulfilled.

strawberry

Care and maintenance after strawberry planting:


1- Coating the soil with straw or sawdust causes the fruit to not touch directly with the soil and soil moisture is also well preserved.
2- Irrigation is carried out at least once a week, through a stacked stream.
3. Timely control of diseases, pests and weeds
4. Cutting out the stems in Scotia during the season of Rasht to prevent delicate native plants.
General conditions suitable for cultivation
▪ The optimum temperature ranges from 15 ° C to 25 ° C
▪ Relative humidity above 40%
▪ Sandy or sandy soils with proper drainage
▪ Acidity or soil pH of 6 to 7
▪ Plant spacing of about 40 cm in bulk and stack
▪ Plant density about 6 plants per square meter
▪ Resistant to pests and diseases
▪ The use of mulch on the culture medium to prevent the development of pests and diseases and weeds.
▪ Removing pods (runners) to strengthen planting
▪ Use of complete fertilizers (micromachromes) in plant nutrition
▪ Proper irrigation (drip irrigation to reduce greenhouse contamination)
▪ Having a higher optical requirement than other green and green vegetable products
▪ On days when more than 13 hours of light is flowing, instead of flowering, the creeping stalk is reduced and the yield is reduced.
Important pests of strawberries: aphid, mite, bud bud, larvae, age, thrips, crowns and ...
Diseases of strawberries: leaf spot, leaf blight, powdery mildew, black root rot, deciduous rot, nematode and ...

Prepare strawberries

Strawberries are naturally fresh fruits and are the first fruits to be released in the spring. In normal conditions and in temperate regions, fruit harvesting is in late May to early May, but nowadays, with certain technologies, it is possible to push forward the fruit's time. In other words, by using modern means, it is possible to advance and produce strawberries outside the season and continue to supply strawberries for a long time to come. Of course, the extra costs that are incurred for advance will be offset by the higher price of the product.

Environmental conditions for growing strawberries in the greenhouse (growing strawberries in the greenhouse)
The most reliable means to advance is the use of greenhouses. The problem of using a greenhouse is primarily the cost of building a greenhouse and requires the expertise and experience to grow strawberries in the greenhouse. For this purpose, strawberries can be sown in the middle of July to early September in the treasury, and from 5 to 7 kg per square foot of fertilizer, full phosphorus potassium fertilizer, as a base fertilizer, was donated to the land on January 17, 12. After generating strong roots in the seedling, the bushes begin to create scaling shoots. When the air cools down, the bushes are exposed to light and low temperatures and they form flowers.
In November and December, plants are planted in greenhouses and planted in a 25- to 30-cm interval.
In the greenhouse, there are 3 to 5 kg of complete chemical fertilizer in 100 square meters.
The temperature of the greenhouse is initially set to 8 to 12 ° C, and with increasing light intensity, the temperature rises to 15 to 20 ° C. Of course, the temperature can be reduced to 8 ° C. Immediately after planting should be sufficiently irrigated.
In irrigation of greenhouse strawberries, care must be taken to ensure that the soil is uniformly moist. In order to prevent the risk of rotting fruit due to high humidity, the greenhouse should be ventilated on time and dry with a high dryness. For pollination and better insemination of strawberry flowers in the greenhouse, one honey beehive can be placed in the greenhouse for every 1000 square meters of cultivated area.

strawberry in greenhouse

Strawberry pests and diseases and strawberry pest control

A. Fungal strawberry diseases

Strawberry powder: Disease agent: Sphaerotheca macularis

It affects the growth of the plants, the amount of crop, as well as the quality of the fruit. The disease also affects the kidney organs such as fruit leaves and fruits that are damaged when they are plucked. The temperature is favorable for spreading the disease from 16 to 27 degrees Celsius and under high relative humidity Even the dry bark has a lot of disease activity.

Management

-Aggregation and removal of debris in winter

-Use resistant varieties

- Creating a lightweight

Biological control using Ampelomyces Quisqualis, commercial grade AQ10

- Spraying with Benomyl or Captain Fruits during fruiting

Strawberry leaf burns disease agent: Diplocarpon earlianum

The disease is intense in hot weather. The leaf area for more than 12 hours, as well as the temperature of 27-30 degrees Celsius, makes the field susceptible to disease. The symptoms are initially distinct, shapeless, and vary in size. The upper leaves of the leaf are stained pink It is believed that the plant is burned if it is intense. Lips appear 6 to 15 days after the burning.

Management:

-Use of resistant materials

-The accumulation of plant debris

- Fit and light fitting

Use of healthy seedlings

Weed control

-Accurate Basmum Chemical Control, such as methylthiophanate

strawberry problem

Leaf burns and strawberry fruit crop disease: Phomopsis obsurans

One of the major diseases of the air organs. The primary parts on the leaves of the leaves are spherical and have a red margin. The lobes are beside the vein of the shape of V, with a broad part to the edge of the leaf. Pink flowers attached to the fruit It appears to be brilliant in color with a dark brownish color in the center of a bright brown area. The middle part of the tissue becomes gradually hardened.

Management:

-Use of disease-free transplants

- Dredging with well-drained and well-ventilated water

- Weed removal

-Use of Captain Yayaprudin fungus

Common leaf spot disease: Mycosphaerella fragariae

Symptoms are formed in the form of small spherical spots in the purple to the red top of the upper leaf. The central area of the stains gradually becomes grayish-gray, while the edges remain pink. If moisture is high and the heat is stained, yellow spots without margins The highest percentage of inflammation, if the temperature is from 27 to 33 ° C, is the time to wet the leaf area for 4 to 6 hours.

Management:

- Creating favorable conditions in the fireplace includes good ventilation exposure

Resistant

- Respect for crop health

Use of suitable fungicides, such as chlorothalonil, in the early stages of spraying, from 10 to 14 days.

Anthracnose disease agent: Colletotrichum spp

The two important forms of Crohn's disease are Crohn's disease and Fruiting. Early nodules appear in small and rounded areas on the stem of the scroll and barley. Some cases can cause insolubility in the course of the disease, and if the whole flora grows dry in the event of an ingrown flapper and flapper. The fruit is flavored and light-colored, which, after spreading, turns into a brightly colored gray color. The fruits are infused with drowning and drooping in the form of daisies on the plant.

Management:

-The use of healthy bones

- Use of plastic molding in rows

- Collecting fruits and vegetables

-Chemical control using protective fungi from the time of flowering with fruits such as potato

Mildew or Gray Strawberry Carrion Disease: Botrytis cinerea

One of the most important diseases, especially in warm and humid conditions. The disease causes inflorescences of the flower and fruit. The cleansing begins at the end of the fruit and spreads to the various organs. The tissue of the plant will remain in the affected area. The fruit remains on the plant in a dry state. The increase in the disease is 20 to 30 degrees Celsius at high relative humidity. A survey has shown that the fruit is plucked in the flowering stage, but the symptoms appear when the fruit is formed.

Management:

- Appropriate planting distance

- Timing and fertilization

-Blend between rows of  MALCH to avoid contact with the fruit

-New and convenient

- Timely delivery

-Application of planting plants and their removal

-Specific Basmom chemical control like Captain and Steam

Leather Disease Disease: Phytophthora cactorum

Higher moisture during harvesting causes a 50% spray loss. Mortar is a soil disease that usually infects the fruit, but occasionally it is also inflorescence and crown crests. In premature and immature juice, it is dark brown in appearance, with brown margin Gets.

Strawberry disease

Management :

- Transplanting with proper drainage

- Use of plastic mulch in rows and rows

- Biological control by bacteria Serratia plymuthica before planting

-Redomyl or Elite Fixings

Fungal Caries Factor: Rhizopus stolonifer

Fungal decay is a disease that occurs after scarring and in the middle of a mucous membrane. Spilled and altered spots are present on the fruit. Fruit is rapidly fluffed. The disease is fed through the ulcer.

Management:

- Quick transfer of fruits harvested to the cold store

-Fruit picking in early spring

-Hygiene measures such as preventing the loss of fruit

Rhizopus stolonifer

Verticillium wilt disease agent: Verticillium albo-atrum

It is an important factor in preventing strawberry cultivation. The fungus causes the disease to last a long time in the soil and remains intact for 25 years. The earliest signs of freshly planted seeds appear to appear at the time of emerging shoots. In decaying plants, older leaves are dried out more tropically. And in the legs and back of the veins, it is dark blue in color. It produces dwarf whipped beards and small brooms. The heat is suitable for mushrooms from 12 to 30 degrees, with an optimum temperature of 21 to 24 degrees.

Management:

- Planting in perfect condition

Resistant to Healthy Skin

-Avoid the excessive use of Nitrogen fertilizer

Soil disinfection before planting with chloropicrin 33% and methyl bromide 66%

Croup rot caused by Phytophthora causative agent: Phytophthora spp

The most important species of strawberries are the smallest in the lower limbs and the bark. The sudden cropping of bushes leads to the sudden death of the whole plant in a short time. In the transverse section of the crown area, brown lines of necrotic tissue are seen. The highest damage occurs during the flowering stage.

Management:

-Use of resistant materials

-The use of healthy bones

- Proper soil mix

-Disinfection of Bamtyl Bromide, Telon or Chloropicrin before planting

Phytophthora spp

Fungal caries (red root) Factor: Phytophthora fragariae

At flowering times, young leaves of green and blue and older trees will be yellow, orange, or red. The lower part of the tree has lower sub branching. The outer part of the root remains white, but if the longitudinal section is rotten, The face of the red ribbon can be seen. Clearance occurs at 7 to 25 degrees.

Management:

- Proper soil mix

-The use of healthy bones

- Chemical control before planting

Roasting Strawberries

Strawberry Croissant (Southern Blight) Strawberry Factor: Sclerotium rolfsii

The cause of the plant's disease is attacked at the contact point with the surface of the soil, causing the root and stick to cause the sudden death of the plant. Dark brown locks appear on the stems or under the surface of the soil, which is hard to detect. The moss is hardly on the remnants of the remaining product. Stays

Management:

-Hygiene practices such as removal of contaminated waste

- Avoid drought-based disease with a history of the disease

-Disinfection of the soil before planting

B-bacterial diseases

Angular leaf spot disease: Xanthomonas fragariae

Symptoms appear on the various organs of the plant. At the woods, small, spotty spots are formed at the lower leaves of the leaf. Typically, the stain is green in color but gradually turns red to brown and forms a necrotic form.

The characteristic of the disease is the presence of clear fluorescence in the light of intense dark hair in the light reflection. The heat of 20 cm per day is appropriate for the bacterial activity.

Management:

-Use of resistant materials

- Removing plant debris

Strawberry angled leaf spot

Bacterial Wilt of Strawberry Disease Ralstonia solanacearum

The disease is caused on the transplants. The bacillus invades a number of young plants of young seedlings, in which case the parenchymal tissues are preferable, resulting in large cavities formed by the lysine that is fused with bacterial cells.

Management:

- Planting healthy plants

-Noodle, ventilation, and fitting

Use of fertilizer only during planting

- Appropriate space for planting

C) viral diseases

Strawberry Fruit Virus ((SMOV

Signs are obvious for clearing the veins, there is no borderline and plant cholumasis. To reduce the temperature of the environment, the symptoms of the disease are reduced. The virus spreads through the brood, mesophilic, epidermal, and epidermal. The virus spreads through the plant. The virus Mechanical and connective tissue can be transmitted, but the transmission capacity with the plant intake has not been reported annually.

Management:

-The use of healthy bones

Resistant

Strabismus Virus (SVBV)

Symptoms are formed in the first leaves in the form of cholortic strips in the main veins and on the two leafy sides. In mild inflammation, the veins are clear to yellow. Convulsion of the strawberry aphid virus, which after the transvaginal virus has the ability to transfer Raderd

Management:

-The use of healthy and well-established vestibules

The wagering bowl is the most appropriate control method.

D-diseases caused by nematodes

Straw and straw nematodes. Agent disease: A.ritzemabosi-Aphelenchoides faragariae

Dwarf shrubs have a tendency to grow, the size of young leaves is smaller than usual, reddish-colored. The dislocation of buds and veins is another symptom. The disease is about 15 days.

Management:

-According to the accumulation of polluted debris

- Use certified and healthy children

Use of warm water

-Use of resistant materials

- Spraying with parathion spray

Root Nematodes Nodes of the Disease: Meloidogyne spp

This nematode is extremely damaging and sometimes destroys strawberry bushes. The knotted root of the knot inflicts more damage during the dry weather. This nematode has less damage in heavy soils. The nonmethods of matter and the oils produced by them in, Under the stereomicroscope, it is detectable on the surface of the roots.

Management:

- soil testing before planting

-Distribution of greenhouse soil before planting if there is plumage

-Use the hydroponic culture system

-Use resistant varieties

-To remove and burn severely polluted shrubs

Root-knot nematodes under a microscope

Root cannabis causative agent: P. pratensis and P.penetrans

General symptoms include dwarfism, jaundice, and growth retardation. Leaves have a clear indication of the presence of staining or necrotic ulcers on the root. Primary spots are small and brown in color, which, while destroying the root of the cortex, can reduce its growth.

Management:

Preventing stress on plants and creating the right conditions for growth

-The use of warm water for 10-30 minutes for root treatment

Dandelion nematodes Disease agent: Xiphinema spp

These nematodes are a root-parasite that penetrates the depths of 4 to 5 cells of the epidermis and the cortex, causing reddish-brown red wounds to roots on the root. These nematodes sometimes also cause the end glands at the tip of the roots. Feeding nematodes from the root reduce the size of the root system, which causes the plant to stop growing and reduces the production of the stem shaft.

Symptoms include dullness, jaundice, growth retardation and leaf loss.

Management:

Thermotherapy like root canal generating nematodes

- Growth of plants

Physiological diseases

Fruity is one of the common symptoms in strawberry greenhouses, due to poor pollination, poor ventilation, high humidity and low light. The lack of proper use of fertilizers and nutrients also results in loss of yield and reduced fruit quality. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the amount of need for high-energy and low-energy nutrients by doing the experiment and proceed according to the results of fertilization and plant growth.

Part Two: Strawberry Pests

Strawberry peanuts

Species belonging to the genera Aphrodes and Euscelis are important because of the transmission of green petals. Protect Webster's scales with a suitable insecticide at several intervals over two weeks.

Strawberry beetles

Strawberry beetles

Most Carabidae beetles are small but small insects and vertebrate predators, but there are several distinct species of strawberry seed beetles called Harpalus rufipes and strawberry soil beetles, called Pterostichus madidus and pterostichus melanarius, and honey bees or specialty feeders. And they are able to damage the strawberry strawberries.

Management:

Strawberries, as well as weeds, in the fall season, by removing older plants and other herbs.

Collect and remove unhealthy and rotting fruits.

- Some parasites are able to control beetles that, by parasitizing eggs, reduce their population.

Use of some toxins in the soil (Carbofan) controls the larvae of these beetles.

Strawberry croutons

The three species of Aristotelia Fragaria, Tyloderma Fragaria, Synanthedon bibionipennis, causing the cornea to cause coronal damage and causing the strains of the straw to stifle. In the third species, the larva leaves the crown of the plant so that part or all of the plant is dry After hatching the eggs, the larvae immediately crawl around the crown and pierce the inside of the crown.

Management:

-These shots are mainly propagated through the transport of polluted plants, so it should be eliminated in transplant transplants.

New crops of healthy bushes are rarely invaded. So the crops and wildlife destroy the proximity of new crops.

Age of Ligones Lineolaris spp

Nutrition Nutrient Activity This drop can reduce fruit loss in the range of damage from very small to 100% unprofitable. The economic damage is the presence of at least two nymphs per plant. Ligos are the cause of deformity of berry fruits Often, the browning of sterilized seeds is a good sign of the damage of the age of Ligos.

Management:

- Weed control reduces damage and age.

-The use of predator insects such as the age of Geocoris and Nabies is effective in controlling these ages.

The necessity of chemical struggle after determining the number of nymphs in the inflorescence is determined early in the flower production stage.

Bad shape strawberry fruit

 

Honeybus strawberry buds Anthonomus signatures

This pest feeds off premature pollen by piercing the flower buds from its long crust. The material's hole puts an egg in the bud and then sprouts the sprouts in a loop and prevents the sprouts from opening. The larvae have the power to locate them. The invasive junctions fall on the plant in the form of droplets or on the floor.

Management:

- The deep lamina of the old bed immediately after harvesting

- Regular squabbling of bushes and, if necessary, chemical struggle

Strawberry Leaves Ancylis comptuna

The pest belongs to a group of beeches. The strawberry leaves are piped up and down to the top with tufts tied up by the pest. The larvae feed on the epidermis by tensing the tufts until they are eaten by the leaves. The larva only feeds from the epidermis, but the constant feeding causes the leaves to dry brown and dry.

Management:

This pest is very susceptible to invasive parasitoids from the Hymenoptera and Diptera sequences, which will keep pest populations below the economic threshold.

Strawberry root aphid Aphis for best

Strawberry root aphid

This aphid works more in places where ants are present. Forks protect aphids and tend to aphids to work on strawberry roots. Against the ants, most of their ancestors are eaten away from herbs. They get aphids. The aphids live around the crown of strawberry bushes and live on leafy stems and buds. When aphids are replicated, they are identified by ants and transmitted to the root portion of the transplant Here, aphids nourish the root tissue by sucking sap from the root so that the strawberry bush is severely weakened. Moore's Invasion symptoms such as slow growth, small leaves, pale and dry fruit.

Management:

- By controlling the ants through deep plowing at the beginning of the growth period, the aphids can be counted.

The aphids kill aphids in the plant's airspace but have little effect on the populations inside the soil and on the root.

Harvest Strawberries:

The harvest of strawberries in the field should be done in the morning or in the afternoon, at a time when the air is cooler and the fruit is completely red, and it should be packed immediately after harvesting and sent to the market. Greenhouse numbers are also harvested throughout the year. It is best to take the fruit with a little bit of the tail and do not enter the fruit until it is picked up. Because of the severe fruiting vulnerability, it should be packed in shallow boxes and carefully monitored during transportation.

Automatic strawberry packing

Reduce strawberry waste:

Did you know that strawberries are one of the most corrupt fruits? Did you know that strawberries have a lot of metabolic activities?
Do you know that all those who work from the strawberry harvest to the sales market at various stages, without knowing they can hurt the product?
Strawberries are the most corrosive fruits and should be picked up completely. The excessive metabolic activity of strawberries can destroy it even without the presence of corrosive agents.
The structure of strawberries is such that it makes it vulnerable to corruption, it has a very thin layer of lining that easily disappears, as well as soft fruit and makes it very vulnerable to impact and pressure.
The injuries caused firstly make strawberries soft, then provide a good place to attack pathogens. High metabolic activities and the sensitivity of the fruit to damage and microbial damage, warn the owners of strawberry farms to take the utmost care in the harvest of strawberries.
The role of temperature in strawberries:
Do you know that temperature is one of the most important factors in reducing or increasing strawberry corruption in the farm and warehouse? Temperature is the most important factor in reducing or increasing activities that lead to strawberries and strains, the intensity of strawberry's breathing is very high, and the air temperature can have a decreasing or increasing effect on breathing. Storing strawberries at temperatures of -0 ° C produces most of the many (keeping it intact) for this product; if the temperature of the strawberries reaches zero to 10 ° C, the rate of fruit corruption multiplies, and The placement of strawberries after harvesting in the front of the sun and the heat of about 30 ° C causes the most damage to strawberries.
 The role of quality control:
Do you know that strawberry growers should observe the concept of quality control from production in the farm to the market?
The quality control in strawberries includes the steps that start from the farm and continue until the product is put on the market. In the field, a high-quality first-grade product should be selected and taken at the stage, and after that, any strain should be avoided and applied to the strawberries. Any delay in the cooling of the product will multiply the rate of fruit corruption, placing the product in a suitable package and carrying the product at optimum conditions can also help to complete the quality control issue.
The role of fungal pathogens in strawberries:
Fungal pathogens play an important role in the contamination of strawberry fruits. The most important mushroom infecting strawberries is mildew gray, gray mold since the formation of flower buds can enter the primary organs of the fruit, and until it comes into contact with the fruit there, or when it comes to softening or damaging the fruit, and in Inside or on the fruit begin its destructive activity. These molds cause more damage during rain and moisture. The disease is better in hot weather and continues to be less intense at near zero temperatures.
The fungal agent of another fungus that at higher temperatures causes more serious damage to strawberries is called rhizospus, which limits the activity of this fungus at 5 ° C. Maintaining hygiene on the farm, preventing fruit contact with wet soil, avoiding fruit damage, grading and removing contaminated and damaged fruits, controlling temperature and relative humidity and, in special circumstances, using high amounts of carbon dioxide during transport can deteriorate. Or reduce the severity of fruit corruption.

Strawberry

The role of injury:

Strawberries are very susceptible to serious injuries and harms in the stages of harvesting and packaging. Many manufacturers, and especially fruit pickers, are unaware of the importance of this seemingly simple damage, and they do not know that a simple mechanical action over a period of several hours may be that the very bad conditions for the beginnings of gnawing fruits and vegetables It provides.
Strawberries are also affected by the use of inappropriate boxes, the over-filling of boxes, the sharp edges of the box with the fruit can be damaged by the pressure and during the transfer. Choosing the box and choosing the right transportation means can prevent the appearance of softness and agglutination and, consequently, the onset of mildew.
The Role of Moisture and Falling Juice:
Strawberries are watery when it comes to juicing, and this helps in the freshness of the freshness and freshness of the fruit.
Delay in harvesting and storing strawberries in warm and cold storage environments leads to the loss of fruit juice, and the loss of water, the appearance of fruit and the high market penetration is greatly reduced.
Timely harvesting, quick cooling, reducing fruit temperatures and increasing the relative humidity of the warehouse to 90% and 95%, can maintain the fruit's livelihood during storage and prevent contamination and contamination.

The role of harvesting and grading strawberries:

Strawberries harvest at the time of harvesting with Carlsberg, the Casberg plays a positive role in protecting the survival rate of strawberries. Normally, the fruit is pinched with its cheek at the sixth finger, without causing damage to the fruit. they do. The fruit should be gently placed in the box, picking up ripe fruits, which are 75% colored. At this time, fruits that are uniformly shaped and colored and uniform in boxes are poured into the boxes and eliminate damaged and contaminated fruits. Harvesters should avoid harvesting and kill the bushes and fruits when harvesting, so as to maintain the quality of harvesting in the next China.
Grading of strawberries:
Strawberry grading operations include cleaning, separation of damaged and defective fruits, separation based on quality factors such as health, cleaning and cutting, handling and handling. Sometimes the grading can be based on the consumer industries of this product, in which case small or medium-sized spiced fruits will be selected, this operation will be carried out before packaging.
Strawberry packing:
If strawberry packaging is carried out in small containers, grading work must be carried out in advance and then sent to the cold store, but if the product is in bulk and with the coolant tunnel in the cooling sheet, it is better to grade the Post-initial cooling.
What do we expect from product packaging?
1 Protect and maintain the contents of the package
2 Facilitate and expedite product turnover
3 Promote the product's nutritional value and place of production on the package
4 Observe customer orders and the size of the desired fruit
5 Attractive and safe packaging
6 Ventilation product
7 Observe environmental issues
So you can say half the value of the product is its packaging. In strawberry packaging as a delicate and vulnerable fruit, it is expected that the strawberry is kept in good health and good ventilation, and the fruits are not pressed too tight and the packages are in such a way that the pressure Not on each other. Usually used in small quantities of 1 kg or less in fresh packaging, and 5 to 6 kg packages are used in the processing of fruit processing at the warehouse of conversion industries.

Strawberry package

The Importance of Primary Cooling:

Although it is often recommended that strawberry growers take fruits at a cool hour, the owners of the farms, inevitably and under the influence of labor issues, can often fail to comply with this. Therefore, fruit is often harvested at an hour that is also tempered by the warm temperature of the environment, and due to the high intensity of breathing in strawberries, the product suffers from the same early hour and begins to cause harmful metabolic activities, the use of specialized refrigerated warehouses The product is inevitable.
Cooling the strawberry celery immediately after harvesting is an independent operation of keeping the cold in the house. Initial cooling chambers require special equipment and equipment. In order to enhance the capabilities of storing corrosive products such as strawberries and raspberries, it is essential to perform initial cooling operations before transporting and storing in cold stores or supplying the product to the consumer market. In this method, cold water, ice and cold air and surface evaporation are used in a vacuum, the most appropriate method is to use the cold air flow quickly. In the rapid flow of cold air, the heat transfer rate of the product is high and the cooling rate rises; during cold weather, the pressure is necessary to penetrate the packages and boxes, and the surface of contact with the fruit will plummet.
Conditions for refrigerated strawberry warehouses:
The cold storehouse is said to be a place where the temperature is higher than the freezing point of the storage product, this temperature varies from a negative 2 to a positive temperature of 16 ° C. The use of cold stores is the most appropriate method of keeping fruit. In this method, the taste and texture of the nutritional value and other product characteristics are less affected than other storage methods, including freezing, drying, preserving by chemical and preserving agents. The basics of cold storage work are based on the fact that by freezing the product at the freezing point at the time of storage, any microbial, chemical and physical corruption has been slowed down and the fruit storage has risen.
The maximum useful shelf life for strawberries is one to two weeks at a temperature of about 2 ° C and a relative humidity of 90%. It should be noted that the use of lower temperatures results in loss of quality and freezing of strawberries. At low humidity, the product lost its water and melted, and the water in strawberries evaporated from the middle layers of the cell and evaporated, and since strawberries are not strong enough to prevent transpiration, so water from Its water-filled portions are evaporated. Depending on the factors and conditions such as breathing intensity, relative humidity, storage temperature, the amount of mechanical damage to the fruit, and the purity of air and light, depends on the maintenance of the product in the cold room.

Managing control and reducing strawberry waste:
In general, in a systemic and complete planning to reduce strawberry waste, you must comply with all the requirements. In this planning, first of all, what can be done before harvesting strawberries can be done according to the timetable, and pre-harvest treatments can be considered from the time of storage on the field:
1 It should be assured from the correct time of harvest, cool times of the day and early morning is the best time.
2 The correct harvesting of strawberries is a very important point, at the time of harvest, the inflorescence (flower set) should be kept in mind after harvesting the pieces of the cabbage, and in the second case, when it was picked up, the fruit was not pressed. In the third place, the accompaniment of Casberg is an important point, and finally, care of other plants is important in terms of performance and quality.

3 We can pay more attention to the proper planning of nutrition to quality issues after harvest. We know that the use of potassium fertilizers can have a positive effect on the quality and taste of strawberries, as well as the use of calcium compounds in the strength of fruit tissue They, have a very high role, so using calcium sulfate is common in strawberry cultivars. In recent years, experiments have been carried out on the effect of calcium chloride on leaves and fruits that the results have shown positive effects of calcium chloride on the shelf life of strawberries and prevented the growth of mildew but had a negative effect on the taste of the fruit, the amount of soluble consumption Calcium chloride per hectare of strawberry farm is 20 kilograms per turn.
4 It is possible to use fungicide compounds before harvesting strawberries, these compounds should have a short period of toxicity, so their toxicity is completely eliminated from consumption. One of the honors of the strawberry product in Kurdistan province is its organicity, therefore As far as possible, the use of these toxins should be avoided. Toxins that have been used up until now are metamaxan, aphrodis and cupola, which are used once a week at flowering and fruit evolution.

Strawberry harvest

5 When strawberries are packaged, it should be avoided of any damage to and squeezing of the fruit, any metabolic activity will increase as a result of any damage, and the attack of pathogens starts from the same point. After harvesting strawberries, you can reduce the amount of strawberry waste by doing a series of tasks. These include:
• Providing initial strawberries to strawberries is one of the key points in keeping it. We have already stated that strawberries are at ambient temperature at the time of harvesting and the rate of respiration is very high, the temperature of the air can increase the rate of enzyme and respiratory activity, both of which To break down the structure and texture of strawberries, so initial cooling can quickly slow down these debris. In order to give the initial cold in a method, special rooms are used under vacuum and water spraying, in this way Due to the evaporation of water, the heat of the product is taken. In another way, the product is exposed to cold air and high pressure cooling systems. In another method, cold water is used, which is not widely used in this method due to changes in the apparent quality of cabbage.
• Some processing plants for frozen preserves for long-term storage of strawberries keep them in cold stores below zero; strawberries will not be freshly cooked after being frozen like other fruits.
• In some types of packaging in which thin polyvinyl chloride coatings are used, weight loss and loss of juice are avoided and the quality of fruit is preserved; PVC coated thin film has a good elasticity And controllable permeability, these coatings increase carbon dioxide and below it the amount of oxygen is low, which contributes to reducing strawberry's intake and increasing its durability.
• To store strawberries, you can also use stores that can be controlled by air. Strawberries are fruits that can withstand high levels of carbon dioxide. Conversely, reducing oxygen causes bad taste and bad fruits.
6 The best way to fight the living organisms is to use biological methods. Currently, an extract of the fungus called nitrous pyrrole is used as an antifungal agent in increasing the shelf life of strawberries.
7 Another technique that is nowadays suitable for disinfection of food and fruits and vegetables is the use of gamma rays on the compounds of the fruit wall.
8 The most suitable method for storing strawberries is the use of volatile compounds of strawberry extract. It has recently been proven that aromatic compounds extracted from strawberry extract can be effective in controlling post-harvest fungal damage.
9 The most important and most effective methods for reducing strawberry waste in the world are attention to the stiffness of strawberry texture in the textbook of shrimp. Fortunately, today the researchers have presented the product with a very high degree of rigidity, including the cultivars Salva, Camroso and Merck. These figures have not yielded acceptable results in packaging, transport and durability.